Order of Lāčplēsis
|Order of Lāčplēsis|
Lāčplēša Kara ordenis
|Type||3 class Order|
|Presented by||Latvia 13|
|Status||No longer awarded|
|Established||11 November 1919|
|First awarded||11 November 1920|
|Last awarded||1 November 1928|
|Next (lower)||Order of the Three Stars|
The Order of Lāčplēsis (also Lāčplēsis Military Order, Latvian: Lāčplēša Kara ordenis), the first and the highest Latvian military award, was established in 1919 on the initiative of Jānis Balodis, the Commander of the Latvian Army during the Latvian War of Independence. The Lāčplēsis Order is awarded in the first, second and third class. Initially, a holder of the order had to be a recipient of the third class before being promoted to a higher class. It was named after the Latvian epic hero, Lāčplēsis. As a young man, Lāčplēsis kills a bear with his bare hands and thus the order is also known as the Order of the Bearslayer.
The medal of the Lāčplēsis Military Order is a white enameled Thunder and Fire Cross (Latvian left facing swastika) with red and golden edging. In the centre of the obverse there is a medallion with picture of the folk hero Lāčplēsis wrestling with a bear. On the reverse side there is the date 11 November 1919, the date when the Latvian Army expelled the troops of Pavel Bermondt-Avalov from Riga. With the date is also engraved motto of the order "Par Latviju" (For Latvia). Edges of the cross were engraved with initials H.B., the trademark of silversmith Hermanis Banks. The emblem of the order was designed by J. Līberts. The holders received also a diploma, designed by Rihards Zariņš, with a brief description of their achievements.
The first award ceremony took place on the Esplanade Square in Riga on 11 November 1920, with President Jānis Čakste personally presenting the decorations to the seven highest-ranking commanders of the Latvian Army, General Pēteris Radziņš, Colonels Mārtiņš Peniķis, Krišjānis Berķis, Jūlijs Jansons and Jānis Apinis and Lieutenant Colonels Oskars Dankers and Jānis Puriņš.
Between 1919 and 1928 the first class was conferred on 11 persons. The second class was awarded to 61 persons (18 Latvians and 43 foreigners. The third class was conferred on 2072 persons (1600 soldiers of the Latvian army, 202 former Latvian riflemen and 271 foreigners). Among the recipients are 136 Estonians, 11 Lithuanians, 47 Germans, 15 Russians, 9 Poles, 4 Jews and 3 Belarusians. Three women – Valija Vesčūnas-Jansone, Līna Čanka-Freidenfelde, and Elza Žiglevica were holders of the third class of the decoration.
The Military Order of Lāčplēsis was also awarded to the foreigners, both common soldiers and high ranking generals and political leaders. Among them were the Commander of the Estonian Army General Johan Laidoner, Pierwszy Marszałek Polski Naczelnik Państwa Józef Piłsudski, Edward Rydz-Śmigły, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, King Albert I of Belgium, and French Marshal Ferdinand Foch.
|Order of Lāčplēsis classes|
Order of Lāčplēsis First Class
Order of Lāčplēsis 2nd Class
|Order of Lāčplēsis 3rd Class|
- "Exhibition "The Lāčplēsis Military Order" ← National History Museum of Latvia". lnvm.lv. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
- Ārzemju kaŗaspēku L.k.o.k saraksti L.k.o.k.
- Latvijas Radio; eng.lsm.lv (4 November 2019). "Elza Žiglevica - one of three women to earn the Order of Lāčplēsis". Latvian Public Broadcasting. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Modris Šēnbergs. "Holders of the "Lāčplēsis" Military Order" (PDF) (in Latvian). arhivi.gov.lv. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
- Priedītis, Ērichs Ēriks (1996). Latvijas Valsts apbalvojumi un Lāčplēši = Latvian national decorations and holders of the Military Order "Lāčplēsis". Rīga: Junda. ISBN 9984-01-020-1.
- L.k.o.k. - Complete database of recipients (searchable, interface in Latvian)
- Order of Lāčplēsis at the website of the President of Latvia
- Orders, Decorations and Medals, Latvia